Heating elements

ASB Heating Elements


Care must be taken to insure complete immersion of heated length of the heater at all times. The heated surface should never be in contact with any sludge.

In the case of flange and pipe-thread type heaters where a gasket seal is necessary, the gasket surface should be clean and dry before heater is seated. The electrical connections must be protected at all times from moisture or vapour; in hazardous locations, explosion-resistant covers are to be used.

The heaters should be periodically inspected for coatings and corrosion, and cleaned if necessary.

When melting solids by direct immersion, a surface vent should be provided to allow gases to escape. Operate the heater on voltage until melted material completely covers the heated area.

In an electroplating application, the metal surface or the heater is to be grounded. The heaters are not under any circumstance to be placed between the electrodes and the work.

Shipping business important abbreviations

• a.a. – (Chartering) Always afloat
• Abt. – About
• abt. – About
• a/c – (Chartering) Account
• acct. – (Chartering) Account
• A/D – Alternate Days After date
• a/d – Alternate Days After date
• Ad. val. – According to value
• ad. val – According to value
• A/V – According to value
• A/H – (Chartering) Antwerp, Hamburg range of ports
• AMVER – Automated Mutual-assistance Vessel Rescue
• AS – Annual Survey
• A. T. S. B. E. – (Chartering) All Time Saved Both Ends
• a. t. s. b. e. – (Chartering) All Time Saved Both Ends
• A. T. S. D. O. – (Chartering) All Time Saved Discharging Only
• a. t. s. d. o. – (Chartering) All Time Saved Discharging Only
• A. T. S. L. O. – (Chartering) All Time Saved Loading Only
• a. t. s. l. o. – (Chartering) All Time Saved Loading Only
• A/V – According to value
• A. W. t. S. B. E. – (Chartering) All Working Time Saved Both Ends
• a. w. t. s. b. e. – (Chartering) All Working Time Saved Both Ends
• A. W. T. S. D. O. – (Chartering) All Working Time Saved Discharging Only
• a. w. t. s. d. o. – (Chartering) All Working Time Saved Discharging Only
• A. W. T. S. L. O. – (Chartering) All Working Time Saved Loading Only
• a. w. t. s. . o. – (Chartering) All Working Time Saved Loading Only
• bb – (Chartering) Ballast Bonus
• B. B. – (Grain Trade) Bar Bound
• B. B. – (Chartering) Below Bridges
• B. B. – Bulbous Bow
• BB – Bulbous Bow


To tally is "to check" or "keep a record" of all cargo loaded into or discharged from a vessel. It is an essential part of cargo work in order to prevent claims, sometimes illegitimate, upon the ship or stevedores for short discharge or loading.

As is often the case, there are so many channels through which consignments have to pass before they eventually reach the consignee after discharge that much confusion and worry can be avoided, if the shipper and carrier safeguard their own interests.

The tallying of a cargo should be made in alphabetically indexed books, one for each hatch and each port of discharge, and should consist of records of all marks and numbers of the goods, description, quantity, disposition of stow within a compartment.

A ship's responsibility ends when the cargo crosses the rail, therefore tallying should be made on board the vessel and not, as it often happens, ashore in the warehouse.

Tallying is done by shore and ship's tallymen. The tallyman counts the number of cargo pieces in each draft before they are removed from the sling. If a draft is some pieces short or extra the tallyman must inform a stevedore about it on the spot.

Tallies should be compared and agreed at the end of the day between the ship tally and shore tally and any difference immediately investigated. In some cases it may even be necessary to retally a consignment if the discrepancy is large.


Cargoes carried by ships are of two kinds: bulk cargoes and general cargoes. Bulk cargoes may be either solid (grain, ore, coal, green sugar, sulphur) or liquid (oil products, wine, fresh water, spirits). All bulk cargoes are usually shipped in bulk without tare. General cargoes represent various goods differently packed. Goods packed in bags, cases, bales and drums are considered as general cargoes. For example, if green sugar is shipped in the hold without tare, in bulk, it is a bulk cargo and if it is packed in bags, we can consider it as general cargo.

It frequently happens that some varieties of cargo are carried on deck. It is to be understood that in this case "on deck" means on an uncovered space and that the cargo is exposed to weather.

Many classes of dangerous goods, such as acids and gas cylinders are carried on deck. Small consignments of goods which may damage other cargo are also given deck stowage. Cargo carried on deck is shipped at "shipper's risk", unless contracted otherwise, and Bills of Lading are qualified accordingly, but nevertheless responsibility falls upon the ship to counteract to any possibility of loss and damage. 

Proper means of fastening the cargo must be provided by lashings; protection from the sun and weather can be obtained by the use of tarpaulins where necessary for certain cargoes. All reasonable amounts of wooden dunnage must be laid to provide drainage courses.

Units of especially heavy cargo are frequently carried on deck. Locomotives, lorries, crates of heavy machinery such as transformers and extremely large lengths of heavy timber (logs) find suitable stowage on deck. These cargoes will require wire and chain lashings connected to ring bolts and provided with bottle screws for tightening and shoring with timber, and the building of cradles and beds.


On board ship the Cargo officer is responsible for the safe and efficient handling and stowage of cargo. This officer should secure proper preparation of the holds before loading and he supervises during the time the ship is receiving or delivering the cargo.

The stevedore is usually in charge of any cargo work that is loading or unloading (discharging). He is responsible for securing the ship with a sufficient number of gangs, cargo-handling machinery and besides he organizes transporting cargoes from the ship to the sheds or warehouses.

The stevedores should inspect the compartments before the beginning of cargo work. The holds and other compartments must be clean, dry and well aired. No dirty or stained dunnage remaining. Cargo battens must be in good condition. Cement chocks between frames unbroken and free from cracks. Scuppers clear. Bilges free and clean. Hatch-boards complete. Appropriate tarpaulins available. Suitable dunnage available. When they are gojng to load grain, at the preliminary survey special attention could be paid to:

  1. plans of the vessel showing the proposals for erection of shifting boards,
  2. sections of the limber boards (they must be clear for inspection of the bilges, which must be clean and clear of any refuse liable to choke the suction pipes),
  3. entering the bilges (they must be absolutely grain-tight),
  4. longitudinal grain-tight shifting boards (they must be fitted from deck to deck or deck to ceiling in any compartment of the hold and must be continuous for the whole length of the compartment or hold),
  5. shifting boards (it is recommended to accept shifting boards of a minimum 2 inches made of good sound timber; shifting boards must be securely fitted at bulkheads).
When bulk does not completely fill the compartment in which it is carried and is secured by bagged grain or other suitable cargo laid on top of the grain in bulk, such bagged grain or other cargo must be laid on platforms which, in their turn, are placed on the bulk grain and so stowed as to prevent the grain from shifting.

The stevedore should supervise cargo work and he should make some entries in his book concerning times of starting and finishing work, times of and duration of any stoppages, with reasons for some. He should know hatches working and number of gangs employed. He should make notes concerning state of the weather and ventillating systems employed, approximate number of tons of cargo worked during the day, draught, fore and aft, and condition of trim.